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✔ گَـروهـ ادبـیآتـ مَنطقہ دَه - گل ها ونمادها در ادبیّات فارسی
 
✔ گَـروهـ ادبـیآتـ مَنطقہ دَه
♠کَــلَمآتـ بِدون ِ تَفــَکُر , هَرگـز بہ آسمآن نمے روَنــد ..⇝♠
 
 
چهارشنبه چهارم دیماه سال 1392 :: نویسنده : مطیعی

مقدمه :  

       گل در فرهنگ ، ادبیات و اعتقادات ما ایرانیان جایگاه ویژه ای دارد و بطوری که درآثار لوحی تزئینی از  گِل پخته مربوط به هزاره سوم پیش از میلاد که در لرستان یافت شده  نماد گل دیده می‌شود  .             

       در هنر هخامنشی  به کارگیری   نمادها  و نشانه‌هایی همچون گل در نگاره‌ها، هویت و مفهومی ایرانی دارد و نقش «گلنار پارسی» در دستان شاهنشاه هخامنشی نیز رنگ و بویی ایرانی داشته و ریشه در فرهنگ ایرانیان دارد . نمونه ای از آن  سنگ نگاره معروف به بارعام شاهنشاه هخامنشی  در تخت‌جمشید است .  شاه  هخامنشی ، در حالی که به نشانه صلح و دوستی ، گلی درشت را در دست دارد نمایندگان سرزمین‌های  دیگر را پذیرفته است.

      در اعتقادات مذهبی ما نیز گل جایگاه خاصی دارد که رودکی در بیت زیر به گوشه ای از  آن اشاره کرده است  : 

       گل نعمتی است هدیه فرستاده از بهشت       تا مردم  کریم تر  شوند  اندر  نعیم  گل   

       در ادبیات ما ایرانیان گل ها یکی از عناصر مهم در شعر فارسی هستند . کمتر شاعری است که در اشعار خود نامی از گلی نبرده باشد .

       فردوسی درداستان مهراب پادشاه کابل، در توصیف چهره زیبای دختر او، رخش را گلگون به رنگ گلنار

می داند .

     به این ترتیب می توان نتیجه گرفت که گل در جای جای زندگی ما ، چه در اشعار ، نقاشی ها و در فرهنگ و هنر ما همیشه مورد توجه بوده است  . در ادامه ی این نوشته ، تعداد اندکی از گل ها را که در ادبیات ما به کار رفته اند، معرفی می نمایم .    

گل لاله
     لاله گلی سرخ رنگ است که در قاعده هر گلبرگ آن  لکه سیاه رنگی دارد که به صورت داغ  بزرگی در قعر جام و در دل گل لاله دیده می شود . سرخی رنگ گل لاله ،خون شهدا را تداعی می کند ودل سوختگی  آن  نماد دل سوخته ی عاشق است . حافظ در این باره می گوید : .

    دل ما به دور رویت  ز چمن فراغ  دارد            که چو سرو پای بند ست و چو لاله داغ دارد

گل سوسن
        سوسن گلی است  سپید و خوشبو که رنگ و روی معشوق را دارد و در بسیاری از اشعار سوسن را آزاد نام نهاده اند ولی آنچه سوسن را از دیگر گل ها متمایز می
 کند از یک سو زبان و زبان آوری آن به جهت شباهت گلبرگ های دراز آن به زبان است و از سویی دیگر خاموشی آن در عین زبان داشتن .  
مهر به دهان داشتن کنایه از تعهد به رازداری نیز هست.

    بسان سوسن اگر ده زبان شود حافظ               چو غنچه پیش تواش مهر بر دهان باشد 

   و  عطار نیشابوری  نیز می گوید :

           سوسن چو زبان داشت، فرو شد به خموشی          در سینه او  گوهر اسرار    نهادند         

      در نمادهای دینی و هنری ،  گل سوسن نشان پاکی است و در استوره‌های ایرانی سوسن و سرو نمادهای آزادی به شمار می‌روند .

    

گل سرخ
      گل، گل سرخ، گل حمرا، گل سوری، گل صد برگ، گل لعل، گل محمدی و
 گل نوروز مترادف  هم هستند . گل سرخ  یا عروس چمن است. در بهار بر درختچه پر خاری می روید و چند صباحی زنده است . گل سرخ معشوق بی چون و چرای بلبل است. حافظ در این باره می گوید :                      .
سخن در پرده می گویم چو گل از پرده بیرون آی     که بیش از پنج روزی نیست حکم میر نوروزی

گل نرگس  
       شش گلبرگ سپید نرگس همراه با دایره زرد میانی و در مجموع شکل چشم انسان را در خاطر تداعی می کند .  بخش زرد رنگ میانی حالت بیمار گونه به گل نرگس می دهد و از این رو شاعران در اشعار خود چشم بیمار و مست و خمار آلوده را به نرگس تشبیه کرده اند .  ساقه بی برگ و سبز رنگ گل را که میان تهی و نی مانند است و خمیده به عصا و قلم تشبیه کرده اند . بر همین وجه نرگس را سر به زیر، فروتن یا سر سنگین خوانده اند . 

حافظ می گوید :

   نرگس مست  نوازش کن  مردم دارش               خون عاشق به قدح گر بخورد نوشش باد      
 

 
گل بنفشه

   گل بنفشه گیاه  بومی ایران است که گلبرگ های آن به رنگ بنفش می باشد  و در مرکز گلبرگ ها تیره  یا سیاه می شود .  بنفشه گونه های متفاوتی دارد. این گیاه را با رنگ های متنوع گلبرگ  نیز  پرورش داده اند .

      گل بنفشه را به خاطر سرخمیده ی آن ،  نماد سر به زیر بودن دانسته اند  واز  ساقه ی نرم  و ظریف و خمیده  ی گل بنفشه به افتادگی و سر به زانوی غم داشتن تعبیر شده است . هم چنین گل بنفشه را نماد افراد عابدمی دانند  که همیشه در حال سجده هستند  . 

 حافظ می گوید :

    کنون که در چمن آمد گل از عدم بوجود          بنفشه   در قدم  او  نهاد  سر  به  سجود  
    بنگر بدین درختان چون جمع  نیکبختان        شادند ای بنفشه از غــــم چرا خمیدی؟ 


                                  گرد آورنده : سوسن افضلی پور      

  دبیرستان استقلال

     منطقه ده تهران     


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نوع مطلب : ارائه مطلب، 
برچسب ها : سرکار خانم سوسن افضلی پور از همکاران گرامی،
لینک های مرتبط :


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۩ باسلام خدمت بازدید کنندگان عزیز.۩

بـــــــــه وبلاگ تخصصی گروه ادبیات منطقه ده خــــــــوش آمدیـــد.⇝

هدف ازطراحی و راه اندازی این وبلاگ؛ایجاد ارتباط میان همکاران ادبیات منطقه
است،تا با ارائه مطالب تازه،بکر و جذاب ادبی ،نکات دستوری ،زندگی نامه شعرا و نویسندگان،نقد و بررسی و... بــرای همکاران عزیز مفیدواقع گردد.
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